• Physical Science 8

    Physical Science 8 emphasizes the nature and structure of matter and the characteristics of energy. Areas of study include the periodic table; physical and chemical changes; nuclear reactions; temperature and heat; sound; light; electricity and magnetism; and work, force, and motion. Research and experimentation and the manipulation of variables to validate conclusions will also be part of the class. Students will share their work through written and oral presentations.

    This course aligns with the Virginia Standards of Learning for Physical Science.

  • Life Science 7

    Life Science 7 emphasizes studying change, life cycles, patterns, and relationships. Students gain an understanding of these principles through the study of cellular organization; the classification of organisms; the relationship among organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems; and change due to the transmission of genetic information from generation to generation. Students will continue to build scientific reasoning, logic, and an understanding of the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations, manipulating variables, and identifying sources of experimental error.

    This course aligns with the Virginia Standards of Learning for Life Science.

  • Mathematics 8

    Mathematics for grade 8 continues to build on the concepts needed for success in high school-level algebra, geometry, and statistics. Students will explore real numbers and the subsets of the real number system. Proportional reasoning is expounded upon as students solve a variety of problems. Students find the volume and surface area of more complex three-dimensional figures and apply transformations to geometric shapes in the coordinate plane. Students will verify and apply the Pythagorean Theorem, creating a foundation for further study of triangular relationships in geometry. Students will represent univariate and bivariate data and make predictions by observing data patterns. Students build upon the algebraic concepts developed in grades 6 and 7, which include simplifying algebraic expressions, solving multistep equations and inequalities, and graphing linear functions.

    This course aligns with the Virginia Standards of Learning for Mathematics, Grade 8.

  • Mathematics 6

    Mathematics for grade 6 provides a transition from the emphasis placed on whole-number arithmetic in the elementary grades to foundations of algebra. The course will focus on rational numbers and operations involving rational numbers. Students will use ratios to compare data sets; recognize decimals, fractions, and percents as ratios; solve single-step and multistep problems, using positive rational numbers; and gain a foundation in the understanding of and operations with integers. Students will solve problems involving area and perimeter and begin to graph in a coordinate plane. In addition, students will build on the concept of graphical representation of data developed in the elementary grades and develop concepts regarding measures of center. Students will solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable and will use algebraic terminology. Students will represent proportional relationships using two variables as a precursor to the development of the concept of linear functions.

    This course aligns with the Virginia Standards of Learning for Mathematics, Grade 6.

  • Civics & Economics (Grade 8)

    This course examines the roles citizens play in the political, governmental, and economic systems of the United States. Students will examine the foundational documents and principles with which the constitutions of Virginia and the United States were established; identify the rights, duties, and responsibilities of citizens; and describe the structure and operation of government at the local, state, and national levels. Through the economics standards, students will compare the U.S. economy to other types of economies. They will investigate the process by which decisions are made in the American market economy and explain the government’s role in the U.S. economy. The course examines personal character traits, such as patriotism, respect for the law, willingness to perform public service, and a sense of civic duty, that facilitate thoughtful and effective participation in the civic life of an increasingly diverse democratic society. Civic and economic education also must emphasize the intellectual and practical skills required for responsible citizenship. Students will learn to consider their own talents, aptitudes, personalities, and market demand as they explore future decisions.

    This course aligns with the Virginia Standards of Learning for Civics & Economics.

  • U.S. History: 1865 to Present (Grade 7)

    Students will continue to use skills for historical and geographical analysis as they examine American history since 1865. The standards for this course relate to the history of the United States from the Reconstruction era to the present. Students should continue to develop and build upon the fundamental concepts and skills in civics, economics, and geography within the context of United States history. Students will use investigation as a foundation to delve into the political, economic, and social challenges facing the nation once reunited after the Civil War. This foundation provides a pathway to develop an understanding of how the American experience shaped the world’s political and economic landscapes. The study of history must emphasize the historical thinking skills required for geographic analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship. Students will apply these skills as they extend their understanding of the essential knowledge defined by all of the standards for history and social science.

    This course aligns with the Virginia Standards of Learning for U.S. History: 1865 to Present.

  • U.S. History to 1865 (Grade 6)

    Middle school students will use skills for historical and geographical analysis to explore the early history of the United States and understand ideas and events that strengthened the union. The standards for this course relate to the history of the United States from pre-Columbian times until 1865. Students will continue to learn fundamental concepts in civics, economics, and geography as they study United States history in chronological sequence and learn about change and continuity in our history. They also will study documents and speeches that laid the foundation for American ideals and institutions and will examine the everyday life of people at different times in the country’s history through the use of primary and secondary sources. The study of history must emphasize the intellectual skills required for responsible citizenship. Students will practice these skills as they extend their understanding of the essential knowledge defined by all of the standards for history and social science.

    This course aligns with the Virginia Standards of Learning for U.S. History to 1865.

  • English 8

    In eighth grade, students continue to build upon skills previously learned in earlier grades. There is a continued emphasis on reading comprehension by comparing fiction and nonfiction texts. In fiction texts, students will explain the development of themes, and compare and contrast authors’ styles. In eighth grade, there will be an increased emphasis on nonfiction reading, and students will analyze authors’ qualifications, point of view, and style. The student will continue the study of word origins, roots, connotations, and denotations. The student will also plan, draft, revise, and edit while writing in a variety of forms, with an emphasis on expository and persuasive writing. Students will compose a thesis statement and defend a position with reasons and evidence. Students will evaluate, analyze, develop, and produce media messages. Students will create multimodal presentations that include different points of view and collaborate with others to exchange ideas, make decisions, and solve problems. The student will apply research techniques to analyze information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions and possible bias. Students will also cite primary and secondary sources using either the MLA or APA styles. As in earlier grades, the meaning and consequences of plagiarism will be stressed.

    This course aligns with the Virginia Standards of Learning for English 8.

  • English 7

    In seventh grade, students continue to build upon skills previously taught in earlier grades. There is a continued emphasis on reading comprehension by comparing fiction and nonfiction texts. In fiction texts, students will identify elements of a variety of genres while focusing on an author’s style. In seventh grade, there is an increased emphasis on nonfiction reading, and students will identify the source, point-of-view, and purpose of texts. The student will continue the study of word origins and roots and begin identifying connotations. The student will also plan, draft, revise, and edit writing in a variety of forms with an emphasis on expository and persuasive writing. Students will write to develop and modify a central idea, tone, and voice to fit the audience and purpose. Students will continue to deliver multimodal presentations individually and in collaborative groups. Students will also interpret information presented in diverse media formats. Students share responsibility for collaborative work—as both a contributor and a facilitator—while working for consensus to accomplish goals. The student will apply research techniques to quote, summarize, and paraphrase research findings while properly citing sources. As in earlier grades, the meaning and consequences of plagiarism will be stressed.

    This course aligns with the Virginia Standards of Learning for English 7.

  • English 6

    In sixth grade, students continue to build upon skills previously taught in earlier grades. There is a continued emphasis on reading comprehension by comparing fiction and nonfiction texts. In fiction texts, students will identify elements of narrative structure including identifying themes and analyzing figurative language. In sixth grade, there is an increased emphasis on nonfiction reading by creating objective summaries and drawing inferences using textual evidence. The student will begin the study of word origins and continue vocabulary development. The student will also plan, draft, revise, and edit writing in a variety of forms with an emphasis on narrative and reflective writing. Students will continue to deliver multimodal presentations individually and in collaborative groups. Students will also interpret information presented in diverse media formats. The student will find, evaluate, and select appropriate resources for a research product and cite both primary and secondary sources. As in earlier grades, the meaning and consequences of plagiarism will be stressed.

    This course aligns with the Virginia Standards of Learning for English 6.